چکیده :

Leadership is one of the most widely researched topics of the 20th century while being one of the most misunderstood as well (Burns, 1978; Chang, 2005; Masood, Dani,Burns, & Backhouse, 2006). Understanding the dynamics of leadership style is not a new area of inquiry. Many studies have indicated leadership style has a positive relationship with employee satisfaction and employee productivity (DeClerk, 2008; Klinsontorn, 2007; Politis, 2005).Historically, four main leadership styles have been present in societies:authoritarian, democratic, laissez-faire, and sometimes all three combined (Bass, 2008).Organizational leaders primarily use the authoritarian or commandand-control style of leadership (Bass, 2008). Because leadership styles are directly related to leaders’ self concept and organizational functions, researchers are increasingly interested in the study of leadership styles (Schiro, 2006). Kouzes and Posner (2008a) postulated a leadership style based on the following leader attributes: (a) model the way, (b) inspire a shared vision, (c) challenge the process, (d) enable others to act, and (e) encourage the heart. Another innovative leadership style is the invitational leadership model based on the self-concept theory (Purkey, 2006).Research findings identified five leadership development themes: (a) training (b) perception and knowledge, (c) responsibility and collaboration, (d) culture, and (e) empowerment. Five themes essential to successful leadership also emerged: (a) communication, (b) ethics, (c) creativity and critical thinking, (d) integrity and trust, and (e) vision and strategy.

کلید واژگان :

Leadership styles, cultural differences, organizational culture functions



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